Computer Languages Types And Overview (2018)


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Computer Languages Types And Overview (2018): Thanks For Landing on to this article. Here we’ll see a brief discussion Computer Languages and Programming Languages. So, without wasting much time let’s get started.

What is Computer Language?

A Language is commonly used to communicate our feelings or expressions to another person with using some words in a structural and conventional manner, but when comes to computers to communicate with them we have various types of languages called Computer Languages.

Computer Language is a language which we use to communicate with the computers in the form of commands and instructions to perform a particular task by the computer. This Computer Language is also known as Programming Language as the programs are set of instructions that are logically connected. Now Let us walk through the various types of computer languages and their features.

Various Types Of Computer Languages

Computer languages establish the flow of communication between the computer and the user. These languages are divided into various categories according to the way how computers can understand them. Basically, there are three levels of Computer languages.

  • Low-level languages.
  • Middle-level languages.
  • High-level languages.

Low-Level Languages

  • A Low-level computer language is very close to computer understandable format i.e., binary format and they can directly interact with the computer memory and registers.
  • These Low-level computer languages are platform dependent because instructions are written as per the internal architecture.
  • So, these are very hard to learn because the user must be aware of all the internal architecture of the computer.
  • A Low-level computer Language is converted into machine code using a utility program Assembler without using compiler or interpreter. So, these low-level languages are also known as Assembly level languages.
  • The processor processes the code very fast as this is more close to machine code.

These Low-Level languages are divided into two types:

1)Machine Language.

2)Assembly Language.

computer languages

1)Machine Language

  • Machine language is also referred as object code is a collection of binary digits and this is comprised with only two bits 0 and 1. So, this is very difficult to understand for humans.
  • When we write any code in any programming language then that code is converted into this machine code or machine language using compiler or interpreter or assembler.
  • Machine code can be understood only by the CPU. Then the CPU handles the instructions and performs the task.

2)Assembly Language

  • Assembly Language is a low-level programming language and these are specific to particular computer systems and this code is converted into machine code by using the special utility program called Assembler.
  • Assembly Language is quite easy when compared to machine language as these contain mnemonic codes for corresponding machine language instructions.
  • Mnemonics are the opcodes(operational codes) that are translated to machine code by using Assembler.
  • As this Assembly Language is specific to particular computers, so the code written in one computer cannot run in another computer.


  • Machine level language increases the speed of the computer as the code is already written in machine understandable language, so it processes very fast and in an efficient manner.
  • But it’s difficult to find any errors in our program and all the memory addresses and operation codes have to be remembered.
  • These languages are machine dependent. So we have to have the perfect knowledge of the entire hardware.
  • But when compared to machine language assembly language is easily modified and understandable by users.

Middle-Level Languages

  • Middle-level language is mainly designed to improve the translated code before it is executed by the computer.
  • This improvement helps to adjust the source code into the targeted computer’s framework.
  • This interacts with the abstraction layer of the computer system and serves as a bridge between the hardware and programming layer of the computer system.
  • Middle-level language is also known as pseudolanguage or intermediate language as it uses the structural conventions of a programming language but is specified for human reading rather than machine reading.
  • Some of the middle-level languages are C, forth, macro-assemble.


  • The main advantage of writing a program in middle-level languages like C Language is very easy to understand when compared to Low-level languages as this uses keywords which we use in our daily life.
  • No need of knowing the entire internal architecture of our system.
  • This supports low-level memory manipulations as well as high-level abstractions.

computer languages

High-Level Languages

  • A high-level programming language mainly focuses on programming logic rather than understanding hardware components of the computer.
  • These are very close to human language as these are very easy to understand and implement by humans.
  • These languages use English words rather than using mnemonic codes.
  • The programs written in this high-level languages must be compiled and interpreted to machine language before executing.
  • Most of the high-level languages are platform independent languages as they never depend on internal architecture and these provide higher level abstraction.
  • There are various types of high-level languages developed for achieving different problems.
  1. Algebraic Formula-type processing languages:
  2. These languages are oriented for computational procedures like mathematical and statistical problems.
  3. These are BASIC(Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), FORTRAN(Formula Translation), ALGOL(Algorithmic Language), APL(A Programming Language).

Business Data Processing Languages

  1. These are able to maintain data processing procedures and problems involved while handling files efficiently.
  2. These languages are COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language), RPG(Report Program Generator).
  3. String and list processing languages:
  4. These are used for string manipulations including search patterns and inserting and deleting characters.
  5. These are LISP(List Processing) and Prolog(Program in Logic).
  6. Object-oriented languages.
  7. In Object-oriented Languages, everything is in the form of objects.
  8. These languages are c+ +, Java.
  9. Visual-oriented languages:
  10. These programming languages are designed for developing Windows-based applications.
  11. These are Visual basic, Visual Java and Visual C.


  • High-level languages are easy to learn and easy to find and debug the errors.
  • These provide better results in better programming productivity.
  • These are very slow when compared to low-level languages and takes additional time to translate the source code into machine code.
  • They cannot communicate directly with the internal hardware as other level languages do.
  • These languages use memory less efficiently.

Final Words

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